|SAS Companion for the Microsoft Windows Environment|
|action bar||See menu bar.|
|active window||a window that is open, is displayed, and contains the cursor. Only one window can be active at a time.|
|ASCII||an acronym for the American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASCII is a 7-bit character coding scheme (8 bits when a parity check bit is included) including graphic (printable) and control (nonprintable) codes.|
|ASCII collating sequence||an ordering of characters that follows the order of the characters in the American Standard for Information Interchange (ASCII) character coding scheme. The SAS System uses the same collating sequence as its host operating system.|
|AUTOEXEC.SAS||a file containing SAS statements that are executed automatically when the SAS System is invoked. The autoexec file can be used to specify some SAS system options, as well as librefs and filerefs that are commonly used.|
|batch file||a file containing Windows commands organized for sequential processing. Batch files usually are identified with a .BAT or .CMD extension.|
|batch mode||a method of executing SAS programs in which
a file containing SAS statements and any necessary operating system commands
is submitted for batch processing. While the program executes, control returns
to the terminal or workstation environment where you can perform other tasks.
Batch mode is sometimes referred to as running in the background. The job
output can be written to files or printed on an output device.
Under Windows, a Status window associated with the SAS job reports what SAS job is running and where the log and procedure output files are written.
|buffer||a memory area reserved for use in performing input/output (I/O) operations.|
|catalog||See SAS catalog.|
|catalog entry||See entry type.|
|child window||a window that is invoked from or contained in another window (the parent window). For example, each SAS window, such as the EXPLORER, PROGRAM EDITOR and LOG window, is a child window of the main SAS window.|
|client||(1) in a network, a workstation requesting
services from the server. See also server.
(2) in pipes, unnamed pipes, DDE, and OLE, an application that sends data to or receives data from an application acting as a server. See also server.
|Clipboard||a temporary storage place managed by Windows for data information that is being passed from one application to another. For example, you can use the Clipboard to pass information between Excel and your SAS session.|
|command prompt||the symbol after which you enter operating system commands. Under Windows, the default command prompt is C:\>.|
|CONFIG.SYS||a system file that contains Windows configuration commands that specify the properties of the operating system, including device drivers, file-handling elements, and memory-management options.|
|configuration file||in the SAS System, an external file containing SAS system options, often called SASVx.CFG, where x is the SAS System version number. The options in the file take effect when you invoke the SAS System. See also SASVx.CFG.|
|Control menu||under Windows, the pull-down menu in the top left corner of most windows (including SAS windowing environment windows) that enables you to move and size windows. You can also use the Control menu to close a program and to select the Task List.|
|Control Panel||under Windows, an application that enables you to specify characteristics of your Windows session, such as mouse tracking speed and the color of the title bar.|
|converting SAS files||the process of changing the format of a SAS file from the format appropriate to one version of the SAS System to the format appropriate to another version running under the same operating system.|
|current folder||See working folder.|
|DDE||See Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE).|
|dialog box||a type of window that opens to prompt you for additional information, provide additional information, or ask you to confirm a request.|
|directory||(1) in the SAS System, either a list of
the associated members and information in a SAS data set, or a list of entries
and associated information in a SAS catalog.
(2) under Windows, a named subdivision on a disk or diskette used in organizing files. A directory also contains information about the file such as size and date of last change.
A directory is also called a folder.
|DLL||See dynamic link library (DLL).|
|docking view||a view of the main SAS window where a dockable window, such as the Explorer or Results windows, is docked to the left side of the main SAS window. A dockable window typically contains a listing of folders or files. When an item in a docked window is opened, the contents of the item is displayed in a separate window to the right of the docked window. The docking view allows for easy navigation within the SAS System.|
|download||to copy a file from the remote host to the local host.|
|drag||to press and hold a mouse button while moving the mouse.|
|dummy variable||(1) a variable used as a placeholder. Dummy
variables usually do not have meaningful values.
(2) in some statistical applications, a numeric variable whose value is limited to 1 or 0.
|Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE)||a standard mechanism in the PC environment for sharing data among Windows applications.|
|dynamic link library (DLL)||a collection of executable modules that are loaded at run time as needed.|
|engine||a part of the SAS System that reads from or writes to a file. Each engine allows the SAS System to access files with a particular format. There are several types of engines. See also interface engine, library engine, native engine, and view engine.|
|entry type||a characteristic of a SAS catalog entry that identifies its structure and attributes to the SAS System. When you create an entry, the SAS System automatically assigns the entry type as part of the name.|
|environment variable||under Windows, a variable that equates one string to another using the SET system option or the Windows SET command. The environment variables defined in one Windows application are not available to other Windows applications.|
|external file||a file created and maintained on the host operating system from which you can read data or stored SAS statements or in which you can store procedure output or output created by PUT statements in a DATA step. An external file is not a SAS data set.|
|file extension||under Windows, the classification of a file in a Windows directory that identifies what type of information is stored in the file. For example, .SC7 is the file extension for SAS catalogs. See also member type.|
|filename||under Windows, the identifier used for a file (including the file extension), such as PROFILE.SC7. See also fully qualified filename and pathname.|
|fileref||the name used to identify an external file
to the SAS System.
Under Windows, you can assign a fileref with a FILENAME statement, the SET system option, the Windows SET command, or the SAS Explorer window.
|folder||(1) in the SAS System, either a list of
the associated members and information in a SAS data set, or a list of entries
and associated information in a SAS catalog.
(2) under Windows, a named subdivision on a disk or diskette used in organizing files. A folder also contains information about the file such as size and date of last change.
A folder is also called a directory.
|font||a complete set of all the characters of the same design and style. The characters in a font can be figures or symbols as well as alphanumeric characters.|
|fully qualified filename||under Windows, a file specification that includes both the pathname and filename, such as C:\SAS\SASUSER\PROFILE.SC7. See also filename and pathname.|
|function key||a keyboard key that can be defined to have a specific action in a specific software environment.|
|icon||in windowing environments, a pictorial representation
of an object. An icon usually represents a window or an object associated
with an action such as printing or filing.
Under Windows, click on the icon to expand the icon to the full form of the object or to choose the action.
|index||in SAS software, a component of a SAS data set that enables the SAS System to access observations in the SAS data set quickly and efficiently. The purpose of SAS indexes is to optimize WHERE-clause processing and facilitate BY-group processing.|
|interface engine||a SAS System engine that reads and writes file formats supported by other vendors' software. See also engine and native engine.|
|library engine||an engine that accesses groups of files and puts them into the correct form for processing by SAS utility windows and procedures. A library engine also determines the fundamental processing characteristics of the library, presents lists of files for the library directory, and supports view engines. See also engine and view engine.|
|libref||the name temporarily associated with a SAS
Under Windows, you can assign a libref with a LIBNAME statement, the SET system option, or the Windows SET command.
|local SAS session||a SAS session running on the local host. The local session accepts SAS statements and passes those that are remote-submitted to the remote host for processing. The local session manages the output and messages from both the local session and the remote session.|
|maximize||to display a window at its largest size.|
|Media Control Interface (MCI)||an applications programming interface (API)
developed by Microsoft and IBM that allows programs to access multimedia devices
such as CD players, mixers, VCRs, video record/playback hardware, and so on.
Under Windows, host-specific SAS functions enable you to access this API.
|member||a SAS file in a SAS data library.|
|member name||a name given to a SAS file in a SAS data
library. A member name can reference a SAS data set, catalog, access descriptor,
or stored program.
Under Windows, member name is equivalent to filename for files stored in a SAS data library.
|member type||a name assigned by the SAS System that identifies the type of information stored in a SAS file. Member types include ACCESS, DATA, CATALOG, PROGRAM, and VIEW.|
|menu bar||the primary list of items in a window that represents the actions or classes of actions that can be executed. Selecting an item executes an action, opens a pull-down menu, or opens a dialog box requesting additional information. See also pop-up menu and pull-down menu.|
|methods of running the SAS System||standard methods of operation used to run
SAS System programs. These methods are SAS/ASSIST software, SAS windowing
environment, interactive line mode, noninteractive mode, and batch mode.
Under Windows, only SAS/ASSIST software, SAS windowing environment, and batch mode are supported.
|minimize||to shrink a window to an icon.
Under Windows, host-specific SAS functions enable you to access this API.
|Multiple Engine Architecture (MEA)||a feature of the SAS System that enables it to access a variety of file formats through sets of instructions called engines. See also engine.|
|multitasking||the ability to execute more than one task running inside a single CPU.|
|named pipe||a named object that provides client-to-server, server-to-client, or duplex communication between unrelated processes. You can use named pipes to establish communication between Windows applications, including multiple SAS sessions. See also pipe.|
|native engine||an engine that accesses forms of SAS files created and processed only by the SAS System. See also engine.|
|network||an interconnected group of computers.|
|Object Linking and Embedding (OLE)||a method of interprocess communication supported by Windows that involves a client/server architecture. OLE enables an object created by one application to be embedded in or linked to another application.|
|OLE||See Object Linking and Embedding (OLE).|
|pathname||under Windows, a specification of a drive, directories, and subdirectories, such as C:\SAS\SASUSER.|
|permanent SAS data library||a library that is not deleted when the SAS session terminates; it is available for subsequent SAS sessions. Unless the USER libref is defined, you use a two-level name to access a file in a permanent library. The first-level name is the libref, and the second-level name is the member name. See also USER data library.|
|physical filename||the name the operating system uses to identify a file. See also file extension, filename, and pathname.|
|pipe||an object that provides direct access to STDIN, STDOUT, and STDERR between Windows processes. Pipe is synonymous with unnamed pipe. See also named pipe.|
|pop-up menu||a menu that appears when requested. Pop-up
menus are context-specific, depending on which window is active and on the
Under Windows, use the WPOPUP command to request a pop-up menu. The SAS System assigns the WPOPUP command to the right mouse button by default. See also menu bar and pull-down menu.
|primary windows||in the SAS windowing environment, EXPLORER, PROGRAM EDITOR, LOG, and OUTPUT (LISTING) windows.|
|procedure output file||an external file that contains the result of the analysis or the report produced. Most procedures write output to the procedure output file by default. Reports that DATA steps produce using PUT statements and a FILE statement with the PRINT destination also go to this file.|
|PROFILE catalog||a SAS catalog in a special SAS data library that contains information used by the SAS System to control various aspects of your SAS windowing environment. See also SASUSER library.|
|pull-down menu||the list of choices that appears when you choose an item from a menu bar or from another menu. See also menu bar and pop-up menu.|
|return code||a code passed to the operating system that reports the results of executing a command or job step.|
|SAS catalog||a SAS file that stores many different kinds
of information in smaller units called entries. A single SAS catalog can
contain several different types of catalog entries.
Some catalog entries contain system information such as key definitions. Other catalog entries contain application information such as window definitions, help windows, formats, informats, macros, or graphics output.
|SAS command||a command that invokes the SAS System. This command may vary depending on the operating system and site.|
|SAS data file||a SAS data set that contains both data values and the descriptor information.|
|SAS data library||in the SAS data model, a collection of SAS files accessed by the same library engine and recognized as a logical unit by the SAS System. A SAS data library is also any folder or subfolder that contains a SAS System file.|
|SAS data set||descriptor information and its related data values organized as a table of observations and variables that can be processed by the SAS System. A SAS data set can be either a SAS data file or a SAS data view.|
|SAS data view||a SAS data set in which the descriptor information and the observations are obtained from other files. SAS data views store only the information required to retrieve data values or descriptor information.|
|SAS windowing environment||an interactive, windowing interface to SAS System software. Commands can be issued by typing them on the command line, pressing function keys, or selecting items from menus or menu bars. Within one session, many different tasks can be accomplished, including preparing and submitting programs, viewing and printing results, and debugging and resubmitting programs.|
|SAS file||a specially structured file that is created, organized, and, optionally, maintained by the SAS System. A SAS file can be a SAS data set, a catalog, a stored program, or an access descriptor.|
|SAS log||a file that contains the SAS statements you enter and messages about the execution of your program.|
|SAS system option||an option that affects processing the entire SAS program or interactive SAS session from the time the option is specified until it is changed. Examples of items controlled by SAS system options include appearance of SAS output, handling of some files used by the SAS System, use of system variables, processing observations in SAS data sets, features of SAS System initialization, and the SAS System's interface with your computer hardware and with the operating system.|
|SASUSER library||a default permanent SAS data library that is created at the beginning of your first SAS session. It contains a PROFILE catalog that stores the tailoring features you specify for the SAS System. You can also store other SAS files in this library. See also PROFILE catalog and SAS data library.|
|SASV8.CFG||under Windows, a file containing system options that are put into effect when the SAS System is invoked.|
|scroll bar||an element of the windowing environment that enables you to scroll the contents of the window.|
|server||(1) in a network, a special workstation, machine, or computer reserved for servicing other computers in the network. Servers can provide file services, communication services, and so on. Servers enable users to access common resources such as disks, data, printers, and modems. See also client. (2) in pipes, unnamed pipes, DDE, and OLE, an application that sends or receives data from an application acting as a client. See also client.|
|swapping||the action of moving segments from memory to disk and vice versa.|
|system option||See SAS system option.|
|taskbar||under Windows, the bar at the bottom of the Windows desktop that displays active applications. The taskbar allows you to easily switch between applications and to restore, move, size, minimize, maximize, and close applications.|
|temporary SAS data library||a library that exists only for the current SAS session or job. The most common temporary library is the WORK library. See also WORK data library.|
|title bar||under Windows, an element of a window that displays the title of the window. The title bar is at the top of the window and is highlighted if the window is active.|
|toggle||an option, parameter, or other mechanism that enables you to turn on or turn off a processing feature.|
|toolbar||under Windows, a feature of the SAS System that enables you to associate an icon with any SAS System command or macro. Selecting the icon executes its associated command or string of commands. The toolbar is located in the menu bar area of the main SAS window. See also Toolbox.|
|Toolbox||under Windows, a feature of the SAS System that enables you to associate an icon with any SAS System command or macro. Selecting the icon executes its associated command or string of commands. The Toolbox is a dialog box and can be moved. See also toolbar.|
|unnamed pipe||also called an anonymous pipe (or simply pipe), this type of pipe is always one way. It is typically used to communicate between a parent process and a child process. Within SAS, the SAS System is the parent process that invokes (and reads data from) a child process.|
|Unrecoverable Application Error (UAE)||the Windows error message that appears when an application violates system integrity. The error can be caused by any application that is running or by the operating system.|
|upload||to copy a file from the local host to the remote host.|
|USER data library||a SAS data library defined with the libref USER. When the libref USER is defined, the SAS System uses it as the default libref for one-level names.|
|view engine||an engine that enables the SAS System to process SAS data views. A view engine performs in a transparent manner. See also SAS data view.|
|window bar||the bar at the bottom of the SAS main window that displays active applications. The window bar allows you to easily switch between applications and to restore, move, size, minimize, maximize, and close applications.|
|WORK data library||the SAS data library automatically defined by the SAS System at the beginning of each SAS session or SAS job. It contains SAS files that are temporary by default. When the libref USER is not defined, the SAS System uses WORK as the default library for SAS files created with one-level names.|
|working folder||the folder to which commands and actions apply when you are executing an application.|
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