|SAS Companion for the OpenVMS Operating Environment|
|active window||a window that is open, is displayed, and contains the cursor. Only one window can be active at a time.|
|ASCII||an acronym for the American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASCII is a 7-bit character coding scheme (8 bits when a parity check bit is included) including graphic (printable) and control (nonprintable) codes.|
|ASCII collating sequence||an ordering of characters that follows the order of the characters in the American Standard for Information Interchange (ASCII) character coding scheme. The SAS System uses the same collating sequence as its host operating environment.|
|autoexec file||a file containing SAS statements that are executed automatically when the SAS System is invoked. The autoexec file can be used to specify some SAS system options, as well as librefs and filerefs that are commonly used.|
|batch file||a file containing OpenVMS commands organized for sequential processing. Batch files usually are identified with a .BAT extension.|
|batch mode||a method of executing SAS programs in which
a file containing SAS statements and any necessary operating system commands
is submitted for batch processing. While the program executes, control returns
to the terminal or workstation environment where you can perform other tasks.
Batch mode is sometimes referred to as running in the background. The job
output can be written to files or printed on an output device.
Under OpenVMS, a Status window associated with the SAS job reports what SAS job is running and where the log and procedure output files are written.
|buffer||a memory area reserved for use in performing input/output (I/O) operations.|
|catalog||See SAS catalog.|
|catalog entry||See entry type.|
|child window||a window that is invoked from or contained in another window (the parent window). See also SAS windowing environment.|
|client||in a network, a workstation requesting services from the server. See also server.|
|command file||a file containing OpenVMS commands organized for sequential processing. Command files usually are identified with a .COM extension.|
|command prompt||the symbol after which you enter operating environment commands. Under OpenVMS, the default command prompt is often $ (a dollar sign).|
|configuration file||(1) under OpenVMS, the STARTUP.CMD file
that specifies the properties of the operating system. See also STARTUP.CMD.
(2) in the SAS System, an external file containing SAS system options that are put into effect when the SAS System is invoked.
|converting SAS files||the process of changing the format of a SAS file from the format appropriate to one version of the SAS System to the format appropriate to another version running under the same operating system.|
|current directory||See working directory.|
|DCL||an acronym for Digital Command Language.|
|dialog box||a type of window that opens to prompt you for additional information, provide additional information, or ask you to confirm a request.|
|directory||(1) in the SAS System, either a list of
the associated members and information in a SAS data set, or a list of entries
and associated information in a SAS catalog.
(2) under OpenVMS, a list of the files that are stored on a disk. A directory also contains information about the file such as size and date of last change.
|download||to copy a file from a remote operating environment to the local operating environment.|
|drag||to press and hold a mouse button while moving the mouse.|
|dummy variable||(1) a variable used as a placeholder. Dummy
variables do not have meaningful values.
(2) in some statistical applications, a numeric variable whose value is limited to 1 or 0.
|engine||a part of the SAS System that reads from
or writes to a file. Each engine enables the SAS System to access files with
a particular format.
There are several types of engines. Library engines control access SAS data libraries and can be specified in a LIBNAME statement. Native library engines access SAS files created and maintained by SAS Institute Inc., while interface library engines support access to other vendors' files, for example SPSS files.
View engines enable the SAS System to read SAS data views described by the SQL procedure (native view) or SAS/ACCESS software (interface view). You cannot specify a view engine in a LIBNAME statement.
|entry type||a characteristic of a SAS catalog entry that identifies its structure and attributes to the SAS System. When you create an entry, the SAS System automatically assigns the entry type as part of the name.|
|external file||a file created and maintained in the host operating environment from which you can read data or stored SAS statements or in which you can store procedure output or output created by PUT statements in a DATA step. An external file is not a SAS data set.|
|file extension||under OpenVMS, the classification of a file in an OpenVMS directory that identifies what type of information is stored in the file. See also member type.|
|filename||under OpenVMS, the identifier used for a file, including the file extension.|
|fileref||the name used to identify an external file
to the SAS System.
Under OpenVMS, you can assign a fileref with a FILENAME statement, the SET system option, or from the New File Shortcut dialog box in the SAS Explorer window.
|font||a complete set of all the characters of the same design and style. The characters in a font can be figures or symbols as well as alphanumeric characters.|
|function key||a keyboard key that can be defined to have a specific action in a specific software environment.|
|index||in SAS software, a component of a SAS data set that enables the SAS System to access observations in the SAS data set quickly and efficiently. The purpose of SAS indexes is to optimize WHERE-clause processing and facilitate BY-group processing.|
|interface engine||See engine.|
|library engine||See engine.|
|libref||the name temporarily associated with a SAS data library. You assign a libref with a LIBNAME statement.|
|member||a SAS file in a SAS data library.|
|member name||a name given to a SAS file in a SAS data
library. A member name can reference a SAS data set, catalog, access descriptor,
or stored program.
Under OpenVMS, member name is equivalent to filename for files stored in a SAS data library.
|member type||a name assigned by the SAS System that identifies the type of information stored in a SAS file. Member types include ACCESS, DATA, CATALOG, PROGRAM, and VIEW.|
|menu bar||the primary list of items in a window that represents the actions or classes of actions that can be executed. Selecting an item executes an action, opens a pull-down menu, or opens a dialog box requesting additional information. See also pop-up menu and pull-down menu.|
|methods of running the SAS System||standard methods of operation used to run
SAS System programs. These methods are SAS/ASSIST software,
windowing environment, interactive line mode, noninteractive mode, and batch
Under OpenVMS, all methods are supported.
|network||an interconnected group of computers.|
|path||the route through a hierarchical file system leading to a particular file or directory.|
|permanent SAS data library||a library that is not deleted when the SAS session terminates; it is available for subsequent SAS sessions. Unless the USER libref is defined, you use a two-level name to access a file in a permanent library. The first-level name is the libref, and the second-level name is the member name. See also USER data library.|
|physical filename||the name OpenVMS uses to identify a file. See also file extension, filename, and path.|
|pop-up menu||a menu that appears when requested. These menus are context-specific, depending on which window is active and on the cursor location.|
|primary windows||in the SAS windowing environment, the Program Editor, Log, and Output windows.|
|procedure output file||an external file that contains the result of the analysis or the report produced. Most procedures write output to the procedure output file by default. Reports that DATA steps produce using PUT statements and FILE statement with the PRINT destination also go to this file.|
|PROFILE catalog||a SAS catalog in a special SAS data library that contains information used by the SAS System to control various aspects of your SAS session. See also SASUSER library.|
|pull-down menu||the list of choices that appears when you chose an item from a menu bar or from another menu. See also menu bar and pop-up menu.|
|return code||a code passed to the operating system that reports the results of executing a command or job step.|
|SAS catalog||a collection of information in smaller units
called entries. A single SAS catalog can contain several different types of
Some catalog entries contain system information such as key definitions. Other catalog entries contain application information such as window definitions, help windows, formats, informats, macros, or graphics output.
|SAS command||a command that invokes the SAS System. This command may vary depending on the operating system and site.|
|SAS data file||a SAS data set that contains both data values and the descriptor information.|
|SAS data library||in the SAS data model, a collection of SAS files accessed by the same library engine and recognized as a logical unit by the SAS System.|
|SAS data set||descriptor information and its related data values organized as a table of observations and variables that can be processed by the SAS System. A SAS data set can be either a SAS data file or a SAS data view.|
|SAS data view||a SAS data set in which the descriptor information and the observations are obtained from other files. SAS data views store only the information required to retrieve data values or descriptor information.|
|SAS file||a specially structured file that is created, organized, and, optionally, maintained by the SAS System. A SAS file can be a SAS data set, a catalog, a stored program, or an access descriptor.|
|SAS log||a file that contains the SAS statements you enter and messages about the execution of your program.|
|SAS system option||an option that affects processing the entire SAS program or interactive SAS session from the time the option is specified until it is changed. Examples of items controlled by SAS system options include appearance of SAS output, handling of some files used by the SAS System, use of system variables, processing observations in SAS data sets, features of SAS System initialization, and the SAS System's interface with your computer hardware and with the operating system.|
|SASUSER library||a default permanent SAS data library that is created at the beginning of your first SAS session. It contains a PROFILE catalog that stores the tailoring features you specify for the SAS System. You can also store other SAS files in this library. See also PROFILE catalog and SAS data library.|
|SAS windowing environment||an interactive, windowing interface to SAS System software. Windowing commands can be issued by typing them on the command line, pressing function keys, or selecting items from pull-down menus or menu bars. Within one session, many different tasks can be accomplished, including preparing and submitting programs, viewing and printing results, and debugging and resubmitting programs.|
|scroll bar||an element of the windowing environment that enables you to scroll the contents of the window.|
|server||on a local area network (LAN), a data station that provides facilities to other data stations.|
|swapping||the process of moving segments from memory to disk and vice versa.|
|temporary SAS data library||a library that exists only for the current SAS session or job. The most common temporary library is the WORK library. See also WORK data library.|
|toggle||an option, parameter, or other mechanism that enables you to turn on or turn off a processing feature.|
|ToolBox||under OpenVMS, a feature of the SAS System that enables you to associate an icon with any windowing environment command or macro. Selecting the icon executes its associated command or string of commands.|
|upload||to copy a file from the local host to a remote host.|
|USER data library||a SAS data library defined with the libref USER. When the libref USER is defined, the SAS System uses it as the default libref for one-level names.|
|view engine||See engine.|
|WORK data library||the SAS data library automatically defined by the SAS System at the beginning of each SAS session or SAS job. It contains SAS files that are temporary by default. When the libref USER is not defined, the SAS System uses WORK as the default library for SAS files created with one-level names.|
|working directory||the directory in which an application program is found. The working directory becomes the current directory when the application is started unless otherwise set. This book assumes the working directory for your SAS sessions is the directory from which you invoked the SAS System.|
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Copyright 1999 by SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA. All rights reserved.