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SAS/SHARE User's Guide


access descriptor a SAS/ACCESS file that describes data to the SAS System that is managed by an external software vendor's interface product. You use an access descriptor as a master to create view descriptors. See also view and view descriptor.
batch mode a method of executing SAS programs in which you prepare a file that contains SAS statements and any necessary operating environment commands, and submit the program to the computer's batch queue. While the program executes, control of the SAS System returns to the user. Batch mode is sometimes referred to as running-in-background. The job output can be written to files or printed on an output device.
browsing data the process of viewing the observations in a file. Depending on how the file is accessed, observations may be viewed one at a time or as a group (in a tabular format). You cannot update data that you are browsing.
client the computer on which you use a SAS session to access a SAS/SHARE server. See also SAS/SHARE server.
communications access method the method that your local session uses to communicate with a remote host. Supported methods include NetBIOS, TCP/IP, TELNET, and APPC. Values for the communications access method are specified by using the COMAMID= system option.
concurrency the shared use of resources by multiple clients or applications at the same time.
control level one of the determinants in the type of lock that a task obtains on a SAS data set or on an observation in the data set. For a SAS data set, control level specifies how other SAS tasks should be allowed to access the SAS data set concurrently. Every SAS task has an open mode and a default control level for each SAS data set that it accesses, based on how the task will operate on that data set. See also locking and open mode.
DATA step view a DATA step program that generates a SAS data view. Like other SAS data views, a DATA step view contains a definition of data that is stored elsewhere; it does not contain the physical data. DATA step views can only function as input data sets in Release 6.07.

An input DATA step view is generated from a DATA step program. The view's input data can come from one or more sources, including external files and other SAS data sets. Because a DATA step view only reads (opens for input) other files, you cannot update this view's underlying data.

data value a unit of character or numeric value information in a SAS data set. A data value represents one variable in one observation.
database management system (DBMS) an integrated software package that enables you to create and manipulate data in the form of databases. See also relational database management systems.
display manager mode an interactive method of running SAS programs in which you edit a group of statements, submit the statements, and then review the results of the statements in various windows.
editing data the process of viewing a file and having the ability to change its data. You might see the data one observation at a time or in a tabular format.
engine a part of the SAS System that reads from or writes to a file. Each engine allows the SAS System to access files that have a particular format. There are several types of engines. See also interface view engine and REMOTE engine.
execution [1] the process in the DATA step in which the SAS System carries out statements for each observation or record in the file.

[2] in contexts other than the DATA step, such as SAS macros, procedures, and global statements, the process in which the SAS System performs the actions indicated.

external file [1] a file maintained by the host operating environment rather than by the SAS System. External files can contain raw data, SAS programming statements, procedure output, or output created by the PUT statement.

[2] in a DATA step, a file that the SAS System can read by using INFILE and INPUT statements, or a file that the SAS System can write by using FILE and PUT statements.

file a collection of related records treated as a unit. SAS files are processed and controlled through the SAS System and are stored in a SAS data library.
format an instruction that the SAS System uses to display or to write each value of a variable. Some formats are supplied by SAS software. Other formats can be written by the user by using the FORMAT procedure in base SAS software or by using SAS/TOOLKIT software.
host the operating environment that provides facilities, computer services, and an environment for software applications.
index a part of a SAS data file that stores both the values of a variable (in a SAS data file) and a set of directions that enable SAS, under certain circumstances, to locate observations in a SAS data file more quickly and efficiently. Indexing variables usually makes data set processing faster, although SAS determines the most efficient way to process data that is maintained by the SAS System.
informat an instruction that the SAS System uses to read raw data values to create variable values. Some informats are supplied by SAS software. Other informats can be written by the user by using the FORMAT procedure in base SAS software or by using SAS/TOOLKIT software.
interactive line mode a method of running SAS programs in which you enter one line of a SAS program at a time at the SAS session prompt. SAS processes each line immediately after you press the ENTER or the RETURN key. Procedure output and informative messages are returned directly to the display monitor.
interface view engine a SAS system engine that retrieves data directly from files formatted by other software vendors and presents the data to the SAS System in the form of a SAS data set. Interface view engines are transparent to the user and are not specified in the LIBNAME statement.
library engine an engine that accesses groups of files and puts them into the correct form for processing by SAS utility windows and procedures. A library engine also determines the fundamental processing characteristics of the library, presents lists of files for the library directory, and supports view engines. See also engine and REMOTE engine.
libref [1] the name temporarily associated with a SAS data library. You assign a libref by using a LIBNAME statement or operating system control language.

[2] the first part of a multilevel SAS file name that indicates the SAS data library in which the file is stored. For example, in the name SASUSER.ACCOUNTS, the name SASUSER is the libref.

local host the computer on which you use a SAS session to initiate a link with a remote host. See also remote host.
local session a SAS session that runs on the local host. The local session accepts SAS statements and passes those statements that are remote-submitted to the remote host for processing. The local session manages the output and the messages from both the local and the remote sessions. See also remote host and remote session.
locking a technique for detecting conflicts among the requests from different SAS tasks. A task obtains a lock on a member (SAS data set) or record (observations) based on the open mode and control level for that SAS data set. A lock can also be obtained on a SAS data library, a data set, a catalog, or a catalog entry by using the LOCK statement or the LOCK command. See also control level and open mode.
member a file in a SAS data library.
member name a name given to a file in a SAS data library. A member name can reference a SAS data set, a catalog, an access descriptor, or a stored program.
member type a name assigned by SAS software that identifies the type of information that is stored in a SAS file. Member types include ACCESS, DATA, CATALOG, PROGRAM, and VIEW.
missing value a value in SAS System that indicates that no data for the variable is stored in the current observation. By default, SAS prints a missing numeric value as a single period and a missing character value as a blank space.
noninteractive mode a method of running SAS programs in which you prepare a file of SAS statements and submit the program to the computer system. The program runs immediately and occupies your current session.
observation a row in a SAS data set. An observation is a collection of data values that are associated with a single entity, such as a customer or a state. Each observation contains one data value for each variable in the data set.
open mode a method by which a SAS task accesses and operates on a member in a SAS data library. There are three open modes for SAS files: input, update, and output. See also control level and locking.
PROC SQL view a definition of a virtual data set that is named and stored for later use. This file contains no data, but it defines data that is stored in the PROC SQL view's underlying SAS data files, or is described by SAS/ACCESS views, DATA step views, or other PROC SQL views. Its output table can be a subset or a superset of one or multiple underlying structures. However, in Release 6.06, you cannot reference a PROC SQL view to update its underlying data. See also view.
quiescing a method for stopping an active resource, that is, a SAS/SHARE server, server library, or users of a SAS/SHARE server. A PROC OPERATE QUIESCE command terminates a resource gradually by disallowing new requests to use the resource.
relational database management system a database management system that organizes and accesses data according to relationships between data items.
REMOTE engine a SAS library engine for SAS/SHARE software. Using it enables a client SAS session to access shared data by communicating with a SAS/SHARE server. See also SAS/SHARE server.
remote host the computer on which processing occurs when you execute a PROC DOWNLOAD, a PROC UPLOAD, or other SAS statement that is executed by using the RSUBMIT command or the RSUBMIT statement. The term remote describes how you interact with a SAS session running on the computer; it is not related to the physical location of the computer. See also local host.
remote session a SAS session running in a special mode on the remote host. No output or log messages are displayed on the remote host; instead, the results of a remote SAS session are transmitted back to the log and output files on the local host. See also local host.
SAS/ACCESS views See SAS data view and view descriptor.
SAS data file a SAS data set that contains both the data values and the descriptor information. SAS data files are of member type DATA.
SAS data library a collection of one or more SAS files that are recognized by the SAS System. Each file is a member of the library.
SAS data set a collection of information that is stored as a unit in SAS software. A SAS data set is arranged in a rectangular, two-dimensional format. Each item in a SAS data set is called a data value. Data values in a row comprise an observation. Data values in a column comprise a variable. See also SAS data file and SAS data view.
SAS data view a SAS data set in which the descriptor information and the observations are obtained from other files. SAS data views store only the information that is required to retrieve data values or descriptor information. SAS data views are of member type VIEW.
SAS Display Manager System an interactive windowing environment in which actions are performed by issuing commands. Display manager commands can be issued by typing them on the command line, pressing function keys, or selecting items from pull-down menus. Within one session, multiple tasks can be accomplished. Display manager can be used to prepare and submit programs, view and print the results, and debug and resubmit the programs. See also display manager mode.
SAS/SHARE server an execution of the SERVER procedure. The SERVER procedure is part of SAS/SHARE software. A server runs in a separate SAS execution that services client's SAS sessions by controlling and executing input and output requests to one or more SAS data libraries.
SAS session an environment created by invoking the SAS System in which you can give commands, submit SAS statements, receive responses to the commands, and receive results of the SAS statements until you exit the environment or until the environment is terminated.
server library a SAS data library that is defined to a SAS/SHARE server. The server controls access to the library.
Structured Query Language (SQL) the standardized, high-level query language that is used in relational database management systems to create and manipulate database management system objects. The SAS System implements SQL by means of the SQL procedure.
variable a column in a SAS data set. A variable is a set of data values that describes a given characteristic across all observations.
view a definition of a virtual data set that is named and stored for later use. This file contains no data but describes or defines data that is stored elsewhere. See also DATA step view, PROC SQL views, SAS data view, and view descriptor.
view descriptor a SAS/ACCESS file that defines all or a subset of interface product data that is described by an access descriptor. The access descriptor describes the data in a single product table or view, when views are allowed in the product. See also access descriptor.

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