Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling

Larry Hatcher, Ph.D.

Acknowledgements

Dedication

Using This Book

- Introduction: The Basics of Principal Component Analysis
- Example: Analysis of the Prosocial Orientation Inventory
- SAS Program and Output
- Steps in Conducting Principal Component Analysis
- An Example with Three Retained Components
- Conclusion

Analysis

References

- Introduction: When Is Exploratory Factor Analysis
- Appropriate?
- Introduction to the Common Factor Model
- Exploratory Factor Analysis versus Principal Component
- Analysis
- Preparing and Administering the Investment Model
- Questionnaire
- SAS Program and Analysis Results
- Steps in Conducting Exploratory Factor Analysis
- A More Complex Example: The Job Search Skills Questionnaire
- Conclusion

References

- Introduction: The Basics of Scale Reliability
- Coefficient Alpha
- Assessing Coefficient Alpha with PROC CORR
- Summarizing the Results
- Conclusion
- References

- Introduction: The Basics of Path Analysis
- Example 1: A Path-Analytic Investigation of the Investment
- Model
- Overview of the Rules for Performing Path Analysis
- Preparing the Program Figure
- Preparing the SAS Program
- Interpreting the Results of the Analysis
- Modifying the Model
- Preparing a Formal Description of the Analysis and Results
- for a Paper
- Example 2: Path Analysis of a Model Predicting Victim
- Reactions to Sexual Harrassmenet
- Conclusion: Learning More about Path Analysis
- References

- Analysis
- Introduction: A Two-Step Approach to Path Analysis with
- Latent Variables
- A Model of the Determinants of Work Performance
- Basic Concepts in Latent-Variable Analyses
- Advantages of Path Analysis with Latent Variables
- Necessary Conditions for Confirmatory Factor Analysis and
- Path Analysis with Latent Variables
- Example: The Investment Model
- Testing the Fit of the Measurement Model from the Investment
- Model Study
- Conclusion: On to Path Analysis with Latent Variables?
- References

- Recapitulation: Basic Concepts in Path Analysis with Latent
- Variables
- Testing the Fit of the Theoretical Model from the Investment
- Model Study
- Preparing a Formal Description of Results for a Paper
- Additional Examples
- Conclusion: Learning More about Latent Variable Models
- References

Introduction: What is the SAS System?

Three Types of SAS Systems Files

Conclusion

Introduction: Inputting Questionnaire Data versus Other Types

of Data

Keying Data: An Illustrative Example

Inputting Data Using the CARDS Statement

Additional Guidelines

Inputting a Correlation or Covariance Matrix

Inputting Data Using the INFILE Statement Rather than the CARDS

Statement

Controlling the Size of the Output and Log Pages with the OPTIONS

Statement

Conclusion

References

Introduction: Manipulating, Subsetting, Concatenating, and Merging

Data

Placement of Data Manipulation and Data Subsetting Statements

Data Manipulation

Data Subsetting

A More Comprehensive Example

Concentating and Merging Data Sets

Conclusion

References

and PROC UNIVARIATE

Introduction: Why Perform Simple Descriptive Analysis

Example: A Revised Volunteerism Survey

Computing Descriptive Statistics with PROC MEANS

Creating Frequency Tables with PROC FREQ

Printing Raw Data with PROC PRINT

Testing for Normality with PROC UNIVARIATE

Conclusion

References

Introduction: When Are Pearson Correlations Appropriate

Interpreting the Coefficient

Linear versus Nonlinear Relationships

Producing Scattergrams with PROC PLOT

Computing Pearson Correlations with PROC CORR

Coefficient

Reference