|SAS/ACCESS Interface to CA-DATACOM/DB: Reference|
|access descriptor||a SAS/ACCESS file that describes to the SAS System a single CA-DATACOM/DB table. It is used as a master for creating view descriptors. See also view descriptor.|
|area||an entity-type consisting of one or more files that hold the tables of a CA-DATACOM/DB database. Each AREA entity-occurrence requires a unique name and specified attributes in the CA-DATADICTIONARY database.|
|batch mode||a method of executing SAS programs in which you prepare a file containing SAS statements, or job control language (JCL) statements, and any necessary operating system commands, and submit the program to the computer's batch queue. Batch execution is completely separate from other activities at your terminal. Batch mode is sometimes referred to as running in background.|
|browsing data||the process of viewing a file. You can see the data one row at a time or in a tabular format. You cannot update data that you are browsing.|
|column||a variable in a SAS data file. Each SAS column can have the following attributes: name, type (character or numeric), length, format, informat, and label. In the ACCESS procedure, columns are created from CA-DATACOM/DB fields.|
|compound field||a field containing two or more CA-DATACOM/DB fields that are contiguous. A compound field has a name and attributes in the CA-DATADICTIONARY database. Each compound field allows access to a group of subfields as one unit. In contrast, see simple field.|
|database||an organized collection of related data. In CA-DATACOM/DB, a database is an entity-type that contains areas, files, records, and fields. Each DATABASE entity-occurrence has a name and attributes in the CA-DATADICTIONARY database.|
|data management system (DBMS)||an integrated software package that enables you to create and manipulate data in the form of databases.|
|CA-DATADICTIONARY database||a blueprint for the type of data to be stored in a CA-DATACOM/DB database. The CA-DATADICTIONARY database consists of specifications for the various database, area, file, record, key, element, and field entity-occurrences in a database. CA-DATADICTIONARY stores and maintains the entity-occurrence names and attributes, along with keys and so on as needed by the application database.|
|data type||a classification according to the representation of the values to be stored in a CA-DATACOM/DB database. The data type is an attribute of every CA-DATACOM/DB field. It tells CA-DATACOM/DB how much physical storage to set aside for the field and the type of data the field will contain. CA-DATACOM/DB allows sixteen different types of character and numeric data. The CA-DATACOM/DB data type is similar to the type attribute of SAS columns.|
|data value||a character or numeric value that is stored
in one column in a SAS row, that is, the intersection of a column (vertical
component) and a row (horizontal component). It refers to the actual data
in a SAS data file, such as the name Smith for the column LASTNAME.
In CA-DATACOM/DB, a character or numeric value that is stored in a field.
|descriptor files||the SAS/ACCESS files used to establish a connection between the SAS System and CA-DATACOM/DB. To create descriptor files, you use the ACCESS procedure. There are two types of descriptor files, access descriptors and view descriptors.|
|editing data||the process of viewing a file with the intention (and ability) of changing it. You can see the data one record at a time or in a tabular format.|
|element||a CA-DATACOM/DB unit of transfer between application programs and CA-DATACOM/DB. An element consists of one or more contiguous CA-DATACOM/DB fields.|
|engine||a component of the SAS System that reads from or writes to a file. Each engine allows the SAS System to access files with a particular format. See also interface view engine.|
|entity-occurrence||an occurrence of a CA-DATACOM/DB entity-type, for example, a database, area, record, or field. Each entity-occurrence has a name and assigned attributes stored in the CA-DATADICTIONARY database.|
|entity-type||a classification of CA-DATACOM/DB entities that make up a CA-DATACOM/DB database. For example, an entity can be a database, area, record, or field.|
|field||a CA-DATACOM/DB entity-type that contains actual data values. Each FIELD entity-occurrence requires a unique name and specific attributes in the CA-DATADICTIONARY database. Records in a table contain one or more FIELD entity-occurrences. See also key field, simple field, compound field, and repeating field.|
|file||a collection of related records treated
as a unit. SAS files are processed and controlled through the SAS System
and are stored in a SAS data library.
In CA-DATACOM/DB, each database contains one or more FILE entity-occurrences that comprise specific records, fields, and elements. Each FILE entity-occurrence requires a unique name and specific attributes in the CA-DATADICTIONARY database.
|format, column||a set of directions the SAS System uses to display each character or numeric data value in a column.|
|index||a part of a SAS data file that stores both
the values of a column and a set of directions. Under certain circumstances,
using indexes enables the SAS System to locate rows in a data file more quickly
and efficiently. Having columns indexed usually makes data set processing
faster, although the SAS System determines the most efficient way to process
data maintained by the SAS System.
In CA-DATACOM/DB, an Index Area is required for each database. Indexing allows any record in the database to be retrieved, according to the record's content. The index contains an entry for each key value in each record in the database. If a field is not indexed, values are not indexed, although they can be searched sequentially.
|informat, column||a set of directions that the SAS System uses when reading column values.|
|interactive line mode||an execution mode in which program statements are entered on the terminal at the SAS session prompt. Procedure output and informative messages are returned directly to your monitor display screen.|
|interface view engine||a SAS System engine that retrieves data directly from files formatted by other software vendors. The SAS/ACCESS interface to CA-DATACOM/DB software includes an interface view engine.|
|key||a CA-DATACOM/DB component that contains one or more simple or compound fields. Keys identify a record or relate multiple records. You can also use keys to specify retrieval order. The fields within a key do not have to be contiguous. Each key must have a CA-DATACOM/DB ID in the CA-DATADICTIONARY database. See also Native Key and Master Key.|
|level||in a CA-DATACOM/DB record, fields can be nested within each other as components, subcomponents, and so on. Each nested field has a nesting level.|
|libref||a temporary name that points to a SAS data library. A SAS file's complete name consists of two words separated by a period. The libref is the first word and indicates the library; the second word is the specific SAS file in the library. For example, in VLIB.NEWBDAY, VLIB is the libref and tells the SAS System where to look to find the file NEWBDAY.|
|Native Key||a field that determines the default sequence for the CA-DATACOM/DB data that are loaded and maintained in a CA-DATACOM/DB table. Each table must have one Native Key, and it can have only one. The Native Key can also be the Master Key.|
|Master Key||a field that makes CA-DATACOM/DB retrieval easier and faster. You can prevent the Master Key values from being duplicated or changed. The Master Key has a name and specific attributes in the CA-DATADICTIONARY database. Each table must have one Master Key, and it can have only one. The Master Key can also be the Native Key.|
|member||a SAS file in a SAS data library.|
|member name||a name given to a SAS file in a SAS data library.|
|member type||a SAS name that identifies the type of information stored in the file. Member types include access, data, catalog, program, and view.|
|missing value||a value in the SAS System indicating that
no data are stored for the column in the current row. By default, the SAS
System represents a missing numeric value with a single period and a missing
character value by a blank space.
In a CA-DATACOM/DB database, a missing value contains all blanks.
|Multi-User environment||a CA-DATACOM/DB execution environment in which several users access a CA-DATACOM/DB database at the same time, with queries and updates being handled simultaneously by a single copy of the software. See also Single User environment.|
|password||an optional string of characters that must be correctly specified by a user to gain access to a CA-DATADICTIONARY entity-occurrence.|
|record||the horizontal component of a CA-DATACOM/DB table. A record is a set of fields that are treated as a unit. Records within a table are ordered by the Native Key. A record is analogous to a SAS row.|
|repeating field||a CA-DATACOM/DB field that occurs more than once. A repeating field can be a simple field or a compound field. Also, repeating fields can be nested within other repeating fields at different levels. Each repeating field has a name and specified attributes.|
|row||the horizontal component of a SAS data file. It is a collection of data values associated with a single entity, such as a customer or a state. Each row contains one data value for each column in the data file. A row is analogous to a data record in a CA-DATACOM/DB table.|
|SAS data file||one of the forms of a SAS data set implemented in Version 6 of the SAS System. A SAS data file contains both data values and the descriptor information associated with the data, such as the column attributes. In previous releases of the SAS System, all SAS data sets were SAS data files. SAS data files are of the member type data.|
|SAS data library||a collection of SAS data sets and other SAS files that are stored and referenced as a unit.|
|SAS data set||a collection of information stored as a
unit under the SAS System. Several SAS data sets can be stored in a SAS data
library. Unlike external files, a SAS data set is processed and controlled
only through the SAS System.
A SAS data set is arranged in a rectangular two-dimensional format. Each item in a SAS data set is called a data value. Data values in a row make up an observation, and those in a column make up a variable. See also SAS data file and SAS data view for how SAS data sets are implemented in Version 6 of the SAS System.
|SAS data view||one of the forms of a SAS data set implemented in Version 6 of the SAS System. A SAS data view contains only the descriptor and other information required to retrieve the data values from other SAS files or external files. Both PROC SQL views and SAS/ACCESS views are considered SAS data views. SAS data views are of the member type view.|
|simple field||a single CA-DATACOM/DB field that is not further divided. In contrast, see compound field.|
|Single User environment||a CA-DATACOM/DB environment that does not allow more than one user to share a database at the same time. See also Multi-User environment.|
|status||a value that identifies a copy of an entity-occurrence in a CA-DATACOM/DB database. The values for status are: TEST, PRODuction, HISTory, INCOmplete, and QUALified production, though only the first two are supported by the SAS/ACCESS interface to CA-DATACOM/DB. Typically, entities have a status consisting of the first letter followed by a three-character version number, for example, P001.|
|table||a collection of data records. In the CA-DATADICTIONARY database,
the combination of one FILE entity-occurrence and one RECORD entity-occurrence
describes a table.
In the SAS System's SQL procedure, a table is equivalent to a SAS data file.
|type||See data type.|
|URT||See User Requirements Table.|
|userid||a string of characters that must be specified correctly by a user to gain access to CA-DATADICTIONARY.|
|User Requirements Table||a table that specifies which CA-DATACOM/DB resources are required and allowed for programs that access CA-DATACOM/DB databases. A User Requirements Table (URT) must be associated with every program that requests CA-DATACOM/DB services. The URT defines, for example, the tables that the program can access (or update), processing priorities in a Multi-User environment, and transaction backout requirements.|
|value||See data value.|
|view||a definition of a virtual data set that
is named and stored for later use. This file contains no data, but it describes
or defines data stored elsewhere. SAS data views can be created by the ACCESS
and SQL procedures. See also SAS data view.
For example, when a SAS/ACCESS view (a view descriptor) is referenced in the SAS PRINT procedure, the interface view engine reads data directly from a CA-DATACOM/DB table. You can also reference this view in certain SAS procedures to update the database described by a SAS/ACCESS view.
A view defined by the SQL procedure reads data from its underlying SAS data files, other PROC SQL views, or SAS/ACCESS views. Its output table can be a subset or a superset of one or more underlying structures. However, in Release 6.06, you cannot reference a PROC SQL view to update its underlying data.
Views specified with CA-DATADICTIONARY for CA-DATACOM/DB databases are not used by the SAS/ACCESS interface to CA-DATACOM/DB.
|view descriptor||a SAS/ACCESS file that defines a subset of DBMS data described by an access descriptor. The subset consists of selected records in a given CA-DATACOM/DB table. See also access descriptor.|
|windowing procedure||a procedure that uses windows and menus to accomplish a SAS System task. For example, ACCESS and FSVIEW are windowing procedures.|
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