|SAS/ACCESS Interface to ADABAS Software|
|access descriptor||a SAS/ACCESS file that describes to the SAS System a single ADABAS file or NATURAL DDM. It is used as a master for creating view descriptors. See also view descriptor.|
|Associator||an ADABAS system file containing internal control information for an entire database. The Associator system file also contains the Space Allocation Table, the Address Converter, the Field Definition Table, and inverted lists for the database.|
|batch mode||a method of executing SAS programs in which you prepare a file containing SAS statements and any necessary operating system commands and submit the program to the computer's batch queue. While the program executes, control of the SAS System returns to the user. Batch mode is sometimes referred to as running in background. The job output can be written to files or printed on an output device.|
|browsing data||the process of viewing a file. You may see the data one observation at a time or in a tabular format. You cannot update data that you are browsing.|
|ciphered data||a form for storing Data Storage records that provides an additional level of protection against unauthorized use of ADABAS data. Also known as encrypted data.|
|compressed data||ADABAS data from which blanks in alphanumeric fields and leading zeros in numeric fields have been removed. (The SAS System also has a compression option for SAS data files.)|
|data field||the smallest logical unit of information that you can define and reference in an ADABAS file. The data field types for ADABAS include elementary, multiple-value, group, periodic group, subfield, and superfield.|
|Data Storage||an ADABAS file containing the compressed data records for all ADABAS files. A single Data Storage physical block contains a variable number of logical records.|
|data value||a character or numeric value that is stored in one variable in an observation, that is, the intersection of a variable (vertical component) and an observation (horizontal component). It refers to the actual data in a SAS data file, such as the value Smith for the variable LASTNAME.|
|database||an organized collection of related data. In ADABAS, a database consists of ADABAS files numbered 1 to 255. These files are contained in the Associator system file and the Data Storage file.|
|database management system (DBMS)||an integrated software package that enables you to create and manipulate data in the form of databases.|
|descriptor (ADABAS)||an ADABAS data field defined as a key data field. The values for a descriptor data field are stored and maintained in an inverted list (an index). The descriptor types include subdescriptor, superdescriptor, and phonetic descriptor. There is also a hyperdescriptor, but the ADABAS interface view engine does not support it.|
|descriptor files||the SAS/ACCESS files used to establish a connection between the SAS System and ADABAS. To create descriptor files, you use the ACCESS procedure. There are two types of descriptor files: access descriptors and view descriptors.|
|editing data||the process of viewing a file with the intent (and ability) to change it. You can see the data one observation at a time or in a tabular format.|
|elementary field||an ADABAS data field that can contain only one value within a given record.|
|engine||the components of the SAS System that read from or write to a file. Each engine allows the SAS System to access files with a particular format. See also interface view engine.|
|exclusive file control||the control of one or more files by a single user, which prevents other users from updating the file during a session.|
|field||See data field.|
|file||a collection of related records treated as a unit. SAS
files are processed and controlled through the SAS System and are stored in
a SAS data library.
An ADABAS file can contain from 0 to 16,777,215 records. The records are physically stored in compressed form in Data Storage. File control information, field definitions, and inverted list entries are contained in the Associator.
|format, variable||a pattern the SAS System uses to display each character or numeric data value in a variable.|
|full-screen procedure||a procedure that uses windows and menus to accomplish a SAS System task. For example, FSVIEW is a full-screen procedure.|
|group||an ADABAS data field that combines a series of consecutive data fields for access efficiency and ease of reference.|
|index||a SAS System file associated with a SAS data file that enables
you to access observations by index value. Indexing usually makes data set
processing faster, although the SAS System determines the most efficient way
to process data maintained by the SAS System.
In ADABAS, an index of values for descriptor data fields is referred to as an inverted list. See inverted list.
|informat, variable||the pattern that the SAS System uses to read data values into a variable. Informats are normally used when you want to update data.|
|interactive line mode||an execution mode in which program statements are entered on the terminal at the SAS session prompt. Procedure output and informative messages are returned directly to your terminal display.|
|interface view engine||an engine that retrieves data directly from files formatted by other software vendors. The SAS/ACCESS interface to ADABAS includes an interface view engine.|
|inverted list||a list of the different values of an ADABAS descriptor, together with the count and the ISNs of the records that contain each value.|
|ISN (Internal Sequence Number)||a number assigned to each logical record in an ADABAS file. ISNs are unique within each ADABAS file and can be assigned either by ADABAS or by the user (the default).|
|key field||See descriptor (ADABAS).|
|libref||a temporary name that points to a SAS data library. A SAS file's complete name consists of two words, separated by a period. The libref is the first word and indicates the library; the second word is the specific SAS file in the library. For example, in VLIB.NEWBDAY, VLIB is the libref and tells the SAS System where to look to find the file NEWBDAY.|
|member||a SAS file in a SAS data library.|
|member name||a name given to a SAS file in a SAS data library.|
|member type||a SAS name that identifies what type of information is stored in the file. Member types include access, data, catalog, program, and view.|
|missing value||a value in the SAS System indicating that no data are stored for the variable in the current observation. By default, the SAS System represents a missing numeric value with a single period and a missing character value by a blank space.|
|multiple-value field||an ADABAS data field that can have more than one value within a given record. The number of occurrences can be from 0 to 191.|
|null value||a value for an ADABAS data field that is missing.|
|observation||the horizontal component of a SAS data file. It is a collection of data values associated with a single entity, such as a customer or state. Each observation contains one data value for each variable in the data file.|
|occurrences||the number of values in a single record for an ADABAS multiple-value field or the number of times a periodic group is repeated in a given record.|
|periodic group||a collection of ADABAS data fields that can occur repeatedly within a given record. The number of occurrences in a periodic group can be from 0 to 99.|
|phonetic descriptor||an ADABAS descriptor defined to perform a search according to a phonetic value, for example, retrieval by family name.|
|SAS data file||one of the formats of a SAS data set that contains both
data values and descriptor information associated with the data, such as the
variable attributes. Before Version 6 of the SAS System, all SAS data sets
were SAS data files. SAS data files are of the member type DATA.
A SAS data file is arranged in a rectangular, two-dimensional format. Each item in a SAS data file is called a data value. Data values in a row make up an observation and those in a column make up a variable.
|SAS data library||a collection of SAS data sets and other SAS files that are stored and referenced as a unit.|
|SAS data set||a collection of information stored as a unit under the SAS
System. Several SAS data sets can be stored in a SAS data library. Unlike
external files, a SAS data set is processed and controlled only through the
For information about SAS data sets, see also SAS data file and SAS data view.
|SAS data view||one of the formats of a SAS data set that contains only the descriptor and other information required to retrieve the data values from other SAS files or external files. Both PROC SQL views and SAS/ACCESS views are considered SAS data views. SAS data views are of the member type VIEW.|
|subdescriptor||an ADABAS descriptor created from a portion of an elementary data field.|
|subfield||a portion of an ADABAS data field that can be defined for read purposes only.|
|superdescriptor||an ADABAS descriptor created from several fields, portions of fields, or combinations thereof.|
|superfield||a combination of ADABAS fields, portions of fields, or both, which can be defined for read purposes only.|
|system files||the ADABAS files used to store Data Definition Modules (DDMs) and NATURAL SECURITY information. They are created and maintained by ADABAS and should not be directly updated.|
|variable||a column in a SAS data file. Each SAS variable can have the following attributes: name, type (character or numeric), length, format, informat, and label. In the ACCESS procedure, variables are created from ADABAS data fields.|
|variable length field||an ADABAS data field that does not have a standard length. A variable length field can have a length up to the maximum for its format.|
|view||a definition of a virtual data set that is named and stored
for later use. This file contains no data, but it describes or defines data
stored elsewhere. SAS data views can be created by the ACCESS and SQL procedures.
See also SAS data view.
For example, when a SAS/ACCESS view -- a view descriptor -- is referenced in the SAS PRINT procedure, the view reads data directly from an ADABAS file. You can also reference this view in certain SAS procedures to update the database described by a SAS/ACCESS view.
A view defined by the SQL procedure reads data from its underlying SAS data files, other PROC SQL views, or SAS/ACCESS views. Its output table can be a subset or a superset of one or multiple underlying structures.
|view descriptor||a SAS/ACCESS file that defines a subset of a database described by an access descriptor. The subset consists of selected data fields from an ADABAS file with optional selection and ordering criteria. See also access descriptor.|
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Copyright 1999 by SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA. All rights reserved.