After completing their study of chemical bonding, students should be able to:
- determine the number of valence electrons in an atom from its position in the periodic table.
- draw Lewis-dot structures of the representative elements.
- state and apply the octet (duet) rule.
- describe the role of noble gas electron configurations in ion formation.
- describe the formation of cations and anions using orbital diagrams, Lewis-dot formulas, and standard ion formulas.
- state the characteristics of an ionic bond and recognize compounds having ionic bonds.
- relate the properties of ionic substances to ionic bonding.
- explain the electrical conductivity of melted and of aqueous solutions of ionic compounds.
- describe the metallic bond in terms of vacant valence orbitals and loosely-bound valence electrons. Relate some properties of metals to the type of bonding present.
- describe the formation of a covalent bond between two nonmetallic elements.
- draw Lewis-dot formulas for simple covalent molecules containing single, double, and triple covalent bonds.
- define polar covalence and use electronegativity values to determine whether a bond is nonpolar covalent, polar covalent, or ionic.
- describe van der Waals forces (London forces, and dipole-dipole forces) and hydrogen bonds.
- explain why molecules are more stable than separated atoms.
- predict how many bonds may be formed by atoms of representative elements.
- predict simple physical properties (e.g., melting point) based on the kind of van der Waals forces present.
- predict simple properties of covalent network solids on the basis of covalent bonding in elements, e.g., diamond and graphite, and in other examples of network solids, e.g., silicates.
Chemical Bonding (BOND)