Linus Pauling(1902 - )
Pauling began his studies as an undergraduate at Oregon State Agricultural College. In order to pay for his classes, he taught quantitative analysis and offered tutorials on freshman chemistry. by 1920, when he was a senior, Pauling was offering a seminar on the electronic nature of the chemical bond. He based this course on Lewis and Langmuir's theories of chemical bonding published in 1916. Pauling attended the California Institute of Technology beginning in 1922. At the time Caltech was one of the first institutions using the new methods of X-ray crystallography to analyze structures, and while still a graduate student, Pauling published seven papers on crystal structures. By 1928, after studying in Europe for a year, Pauling was doing frontier research on chemical bonding. Beginning in 1931 he published a seven-part series titled "The Nature of the Chemical Bond." New rules for determining bond lengths, the angles between bonds, magnetic moments and other molecular properties were described using the concept of resonance. Pauling's theory held that molecules can be represented by a linear combination of wave functions. He thus transformed the field of chemistry by applying quantum theory and quantum mechanics to chemical structure and bonding. Pauling has continued to study molecular structure with emphasis on the structure of protein molecules from living tissue. Through his success in determining protein structures, Pauling established himself as a founder of modern molecular biology.
In 1954, Pauling received the Nobel Prize for his research into the nature of the chemical bond. In addition to his scientific work he has been an outspoken advocate of peaceful resolution of conflict. Such activities resulted in his receipt of a second Nobel Prize, the Peace Prize, in 1963.