Objectives - Oriented

AGED 6223




Objectives-Oriented Evaluation Approach

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Tylerian Evaluation Approach

Establish broad goals or objectives
Classify the goals or objectives
Define objectives in behavioral terms
Find situations in which achievement of objectives can be shown
Develop or select measurement techniques
Collect performance data
Compare performance data with behaviorally stated objectives


Logical Methods
Sanders and Cunningham

Examining the cogency of the argument or rationale behind each objectives.
Examining the consequences of accomplishing the goals or objective
Considering whether higher-order values, such as laws or policies, fit with existing practices, moral principles, the ideals of a free society, or the Constitution, to see if a goal or purpose if required by or will conflict with such values


Empirical Methods
Sanders and Cunningham

Collecting group data to describe judgments about the value of a goal or objective

Arranging for experts, hearings, or panels to review and evaluate potential goals or objectives

Conducting content studies of archival records

conducting a pilot study to see if the goal is attainable and in what form it may be attained

Metfessel and Michaels’ Evaluation Paradigm

Involve the total school community as facilitators of program evaluation
Formulate cohesive model of goals and specific objectives
Translate specific objectives into a communicable form applicable to facilitating learning in the school environment
Select or construct instruments to furnish measures allowing inferences about program effectiveness
Carry out periodic observations using content-valid tests, scales, and other behavioral measures
Analyze data using appropriate statistical methods
Interpret the data using standards of desired levels of performance over all measures
Develop recommendations for the further implementation, modification, and revision of broad goals and specific objectives.


Hammond’s Evaluation Approach

Behavioral Objectives


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Teacher, administrator, educational specialist


Behavioral Objectives

Cognitive Objectives
Affective Objectives
Psychomotor Objectives


Taba’s Model

Diagnosis of needs
Formulation of objectives
Selection of content
Organization of content
Selection of learning experiences
Organization of learning experiences
Determining the "what" and "how" of evaluation



Easily understood
Easy to follow and implement
Produces information relevant to the mission



Lacks a real evaluative component
Lacks standards to judge the importance of observed discrepancies between objectives and performance levels
Neglects the value of the objectives
Ignores important alternatives that should be considered
Neglects transactions that occur within the program or activity being evaluated
neglects the context in which the evaluation takes place
Ignores important outcomes other than those covered by the objectives
Omits evidence of program value not reflected in its own objective
Promotes a linear, inflexible approach to evaluation


Survey Design Notes by Dr. Don Dillman;

A Survey Can: "Provide the distribution of a characteristic in a population by collecting information
from only a few of its members."

Rules of Thumb:

Sample randomly

Doubling sample size reduces sampling error by half

Sampling can be far more complex than described.

Measurement Error:

Occurs when respondent answers to questions are inaccurate.

A result of question wording, the questionnaire, the interviewer, the survey method, and/or the

Sampling Error

Occurs because only a subset of the population is surveyed.



+/- 10%
+/- 5%
+/- 3%
+/- 2%

Coverage Error

Occurs because samples list does not include all elements of the population that one wishes to survey.

Each member of the entire population needs to have a known (non-zero) chance of being included in the sample.

Non-response Error

Occurs when some of the sampled individuals do not respond and they are different from those who do in a way that
is relevant to study.

This is more important than response rate!

For a survey to be accurate, each of the four sources of data collection error must be attended to

sampling error

Coverage error

measurement error

Non-response error

Perspective for Improving Response

Increase rewards

Decrease costs

Promote trust

This is a social exchange, not and economic exchange.

Requirements for Maximizing Mail Survey Response

Respondent-friendly questionnaire

Personalized correspondence

Prepaid financial incentive - $ 2 - 5

First Class mail

Four contacts - pre-notice, questionnaire, reminder, replacement questionnaire

Fifth contact - 2 day priority mail or telephone

Why Mail Surveys Usually Fail

Inadequate sample frames and respondent selection

Poor Questions

Selective non-response

How to Improve Responce

A List

Multiple contacts

Stamped return envelope

$ Pre-incentive

Respondent-friendly questionnaire

B List

No labels

Real signature

Green paper

Graphic cover design

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