Final Exam
Home Up Critiques Example 1 Example 2Final Exam

Research Design in Occupational Education
Copyright 1997. James P. Key. Oklahoma State University
Except for those materials which are supplied by different departments of the University
(ex. IRB, Thesis Handbook) and references used by permission.


Final Exam

I. Match the following printed sources and the primary information found in them.

1. Encyclopedias

a. Summaries of articles from special journals in specials fields.

2. Dictionaries

b. Up-to-date statistics and data about evevents, progress, and conditions.

3. Almanacs & Yearbooks

c. Summaries of graduate research.

4. Directories

d. Listing of books and libraries where they can be gotten on inter-library loan. 

5. Biographical Sources (Biographical Index)

e. Microfilm, microfiche, and microcard listings except theses and dissertations. 

6. Bibliographical Sources (Education index, Bibliographic Index) 

f. Aclassification of important newspaper items by subject, personality, and organization.

7. Card Catalog

g. Subject and author index of general interest articles in more than 30 magazines.

8. National Union Catalog

h. An overview of education research in eleven subdivisions.

9. Cumulative Book Index

i. Specific facts about persons. 
10. Books in Print j. List of periodials in different libraries.
11. Monthly Catalog of Government Publications k. Departmental and subject index to government publications.
12. Education Index l. Educational research journals.
13. Readerís Guide m. Listing of articles in most educational journals and many other education sources.
14. Union List of Serials in libraries of US & Canada n. Names and addresses of persons, periodicals, publishers, etc.
15. New York Times Index o. Lists of sources on given subjects.
16. Guide to Microforms in Print p. Brief overview of a topic. 
17. Review of Educational Research q. Current index to articles in more than 500 journals of education.
18. Psychological Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Education Abstracts r. Complete listing of title, author, and publisher of books in the English language. 
19. Journal of Educational
Research, NEA Research Bulletin, Journal of Experimental Education, Research Quarterly, American Educational Research Journal
s. Spelling, pronunciation, usage, and meaning of words.
20. Dissertation Abstracts, Masters Abstracts t. Author, title, and subject listing of books in the library.
21. Resources in Education u. Author-title listing of books currently being printed. 
22. CIJE v. Indexes and abstrats of documents from all ERIC clearinghouses.
23. ERIC w. An educational information retrieval and dissemination system. 

II. Match the five major steps of the scientific method to the illustration of those steps by inserting the matching letter.

1. The car will not start.

a. Techniques for collecting data are chosen.

2. The person observes whether he can hear the starter and the position of the gas gauge.

b. Suggested solutions of the problem, hypotheses, are derived.

3. Based on past experience, he guesses there might not be enough electricity to (a) turn the starter or (b) fire the plugs, or (c) it might not be getting gas to the cylinders.

c. Assumptions underlying the hypotheses are stated.

4. (a) If there is not enough electricity to the starter, it will not turn the engine over. (b) If there is not electricity to the plugs, the spark will not jump the gap. (c) If it is not getting gas, there will not be gas in the intake.

d. A search of the related literature is done.

5. He checks (a) if the starter will turn the engine over.(b) if the spark will jump the gap, or (c) if there is gas in the intake.

e. A felt difficulty is encounter, a problem discovered.
f. The hypotheses are tested by action.
g. The difficulty or problem is further identified and defined.
h. Deductive reasoning is used to think out results of suggested solutions.
i. Appropriate statistical methods are chosen for the problem.
j. An experiental design is chosen to fit the problem.
k. Advice from an authority is sought about the problem.

III. Circle the following number of the sources of historical information which are primary and check those which are secondary.

1. A picture of an event

2. A tape recording

3.Folk tales

4. Original paintings

5. Deeds 

6. A diary

7. The original draft of a speech

8. An artifact

9. An article describing a document

10. A textbook describing an event

IV. Match the correct definition or description with each item.
1. Representative sample
a. The observed conditions represents a significant departure from what might be expeted by chance alone. 
2. Adequate sample
b. A measure based on a sample.
3. Random sampling
c. Represent how individuals differ in kind or sort.
4. Stratified random sampling
d. A statement that there is no relationship or differene between the variable under analysis. 
5. Proportional random sampling
e. A pre-determined number of units is drawn from smaller homogeneous units determined by some characteristic. 
6. Double sampling
f. Is determined by the nature of the population, type of sampling design, and degree of precision required. 
7. Systematic sampling
g. Selecting randomized intact units such as schools or classes rather than individuals within them. 
8. Cluster sampling
h. The probability of the events occurrence by chance chosen as a perentage. 
9. Descriptive statistics
i. A large group containing all units of a defined category. 
10. Inferential statistics
j. Drawing a number of units from the non-respondents to see if they are different from the respondents.
11. Quantitative variable
k. A small group o fcarefully selected units from the defined category. 
12. Qualitative variable
l. Measures of characteristics of the small group (sample) are generalized to represent the characteristics of the large group (population). 
13. Population
m. Represents how individuals differ in amount, degree, or frequency.
14. Sample
n. Statement which indicates the direction of expeted relationship or differene between variables under analysis.
15. Statistic
o. Each unit in the population has an equal or known chance of being chosen.
16. Parameter
p. Numbers which in effect give a "word picture" of the information they represent.
17. Statistically significant
q. A small group (sample) out of a large group (population) which is so typical of the large group that it contains most of the characteristics of the large group and is unbiased.
18. Level of significance
r. A measure based on a population.
19. Null hypothesis
s. A pre-determined number of units is drawn from smaller homogeneous units determined by some characteristic  based on the size of those units.
20. Research hypothesis
t.Units are drawn at fixed intervals from a list, preferably randomized. 
21. Dependent variable
u. Change caused by experimental treatment.
22. Independent variable
v. Factor manipulated under observation to determined its relationship to the dependent variable.
23. Internal validity
w. Determines if the independent variable really produced the change.
24. External validity
x. An instrument measures what it says it will measure.
25. Reliability
y. How consistently an instrument yields the same results on repeated measurements.
26. Validity
z. Determines the generalizability or representativeness of the research findings.

V. Statistical Problems

(a) 4, 2, 3, 4, 2, 3, 4, 5, 3, 1, 2, 3 

Using the above set of numbers, construct a histogram.

Using the above set of numbers, calculated these measures of central tendency - mean, median, and mode.

Using the above set of numbers, calculated these measures of variation - range, and standard deviation.

(b) Figure the correlation between these two groups of scores.



Arc Welding

Oxyacetylene Welding

1 2
2 1
3 4
4 3
5 5

df = (Number of pairs - 2) =


Ho = Accept or Reject?

(c) Chi Square - Is there any difference between frequency of grades for boys or girls?





Row Subtotal


80( ) 60( ) 40( ) 20( )



20( ) 100( ) 60( ) 20( )


Column Subtotal

100 160 100 40



X2fo = observed frequency

fe = expected frequency = 


X2 =

df = (Row - 1) (Columns - 1) = 

X2.05 =

Ho =- Accept or Reject?

VI. Place the number corresponding to the one primary use, the letter corresponding to the one best measurement level, and the number(s) of all assumptions that fit that statistic in the blanks beside it.



Primary Use

Measurement Level Best Suited

Assumption to be Met

Standard Deviation
"t" test
Separate variance formula
Pooled variance formula
Correlated formula
Analysis of Variance
Single Class
Multiple Class

Analysis of covariance

Single Class
Multiple Class
Chi Square
Correlation (Multiple)
Regression (Multiple)


1. Representative sample (usually random)

2. Normal Population Distribution

3. Equal Variances

4. Linear Data

5. Independent Observations

Measurement Level

A. Interval(Equal interval between measures)

B. Ordinal (Numbers can be ranked)

C. Nominal (Numbers represent names)


1. Test differences among means of 2 or more groups controlling for 1 or more variables.

2. Analyze scores on a large number of variables to determine a few causes of the change.

3. Predict relationship between 1 dependent and 2 or more independent variables.

4. Test differences among means of 2 or more groups with 1 dependent and 2 or more independent variables controlling for 1 or more variables.

5. Measure variation.

6. Test difference among means of 2 or more groups with 1 dependent & 2 or more independent variable.

7. Measure relationship between 2 variables.

8. Test difference between means of 2 groups.

9. Measure relationship between 1 dependent and 2 or more independent variables.

10. Test differences among means of 2 or more groups.

11. Measure central tendency.

12. Compare frequency of occurrence.

13. Predict relationship between 1 dependent and 1 independent variable.


VII. Match the term with the definition or description.

Common Sense
External Criticism
Internal Criticism
Historical Research
Descriptive Research
Experimental Research
Physical Manipulation
Primary Source
Selective Manipulation
Secondary Source
Statistical Manipulation
a. Selecting in or out variables that cannot be controlled.

b. Source of knowledge based on rationalization.

c. Questions the authenticity of the source.

d. Is believed to have originated from outside of man's experience.

e. Collection of information on existing phenomena which describes the characteristics of whole population of people, investigates relationships between variables, or determines changes over time.

f. An effort to determine or predict events likely to occur by controlling factors that may affect the results of an experiment.

g. Ability to learn from this source of knowledge is generally considered a prime characteristic of intelligent behavior.

h. Research used to test the genuineness of the reported events, conditions or observations of others.

i. Source of knowledge that may not be completely relied upon without proving the results.

j. Questions the accuracy after checking the authenticity of the source.

k. All subjects are equally exposed to the independent variable.

l. Information derived from someone of reputation of an opinion or evidence.

m. Sources of information based on direct results of events or any registered evidence of events by eyewitness.

n. Variables not conducive to physical or selective manipulation may be controlled by this method.

o. Can hinder scientific investigation when used to justify preconceived ideas.

p. Information collected from textbooks, newspapers, encyclopedias, etc.

VIII. Match the characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages with questionnaire or interview.
Q = Questionnaire

I = Interview

1. _____ Reduces anxiety.

2. _____ Respondents answers in any way they see fit.

3._____ Allows for the consistent uniformity of questions.

4. _____ Questions can be clarified.

5. _____ Considered the lazy man's method.

6. _____ Yield more comparable data.

7. _____ Objective type of questions are asked.

8. _____ Economical.

9. _____ Able to determine verbal and non-verbal behavior.

10. ____ Easily used with children and illiterates.

IX. Match the advantages and disadvantages with structured or unstructured interview.
S = Structured Interview

U = Unstructured Interview

1. _____ Difficult to compare data.

2. _____ Use of identical questions may hinder questioning in depth.

3. _____ Few limitations.

4. _____ Open.

5. _____ Useful in the exploratory phase of research.

6. _____ Questions can be shifted to get better responses.

7. _____ Different methods are used.

8. _____ Flexible.

9. _____ More scientific.

10 ____ Not easy to measure the gathered data.

X. Match the studies and purposes or types of study.
A = Survey

B = Interrelationship

C = Developmental

1. _____ Determines the degree of the relationship between two or more variables.

2. _____ Determines in depth the present situation and the aim being pursued.

3. _____ A study which refers to determining changes over time.

4. _____ Present situations are documented in this type of study.

5. _____ Thorough investigation of individual situation or personality to examine specific condition and to suggest improvement where necessary.

6. _____ The study which investigates the relationship between variables.

7. _____ Describes the characteristics of the whole population of people or situation.

8. _____ This type of study facilitates better organization of training programs for specific jobs.

9. _____ The data gathered deals deals with internal or external characteristics of a community.

10.____ Type of study relevant to forecasting future situations.

XI. Match definitions, advantages, and disadvantages with the tool.

A = Inventories
D = Semantic Differential
B = Scale 
E = Q Methodology
C = Direct Observation 
F = Delphi Technique
1. _____  Unnatural.

2. _____  Has limited use because of unsatisfactory validity.

3. _____  Uses correlation between persons and is suitable to small samples.

4. _____  Gathers opinions to have a basis for appraising, ascertaining, perceiving, and anticipating situations.

5. _____  This tool uses clusters of adjectives as scales to rate concepts or meanings of words.

6. _____  Measures attitudes, values, and interests.

7. _____ Measures traits by direct observation of behavior. 

8. _____  Describes traits of certain defined groups.

9. _____ Realistic. 

10. _____ Prevents personality biases.

XII. Match the factors and definitions with types of validity.
I = Internal Validity

E = External Validity

1. _____  History - The events occurring between the first and second measurements in addition to the experimental variable which might affect the measurement.

2. _____ Measuring Instruments - Changes in instruments, calibration of instruments, observers, or scores may cause changes in the measurement.

3. _____  Multiple Treatment Interference - If the subjects are exposed to more than one treatment, then the findings could only be generalized to individuals exposed to the same treatments in the same order of presentation.

4. _____  Pre-Testing - The effect created on a second measurement by having a measurement before the experiment.

5. _____  Differential Selection - Selection of subjects determines how findings generalized. Subjects selected from small group or one with particular characteristics would limit generalizability. Randomly chosen subjects from entire population could be generalized to entire population.

6. _____  Experimental Procedures - The experimental procedures and arrangements have a certain amount of effect on the subjects in the experimental settings. Generalization to persons not in the experimental setting may be precluded.

7. _____  Pre-Testing - Individuals who were pretested might be less or more sensitive to the experimental variable or might have "learned" from the pre-test making them unrepresentative of the population who had not been pretested.

8. _____  Maturation - The process of maturing which takes place in the individual during the duration of the experiment which is not a result of specific events but of simply growing older, growing more tired, or similar changes.

9. _____  Experimental Mortality - The loss of subjects from comparison groups could greatly affect the comparisons because of unique characteristics of those subject. Groups to be compared need to be the same after as before the experiment.

10. _____  Statistical Regression - Where groups are chosen because of extreme scores of measurements, those scores or measurements tend to move toward the mean with repeated measurements even without an experimental variable.

11. _____  Interaction of Factors - Combination of factors may interact especially in multiple group comparisons to produce erroneous measurements.

12. _____  Differential Selection - Different individuals or groups would have different previous knowledge or ability which would affect the final measurement if not taken into account.

XIII. Match the tool with the factor it helps control.
P = Pre-Test, Post-Test 
R = Randomization
C = Control Group 
A = Additional Groups

1. _____  Helps reduce effect of History, Maturation, Instrumentation, and Interaction of Factors.

2. _____  Aids control for differential selection by determining the presence or knowledge of experimental variable before experiment begins. Aids control of experimental mortality.

3. _____  Aids in control of Statistical Regression, Differential Selection, and Interaction of Factors. Greatly increases generalizability by helping make groups representative of populations.

4. _____ Aids in control of the effects of Pre-Test and Experimental Procedures. Needs to be used in conjunction with other pretested groups or other factors jeopardizing validity would be present.

Home Up Critiques Example 1 Example 2Final Exam