Final Exam
I. Match the following
printed sources and the primary information found in them.

1. Encyclopedias 
a.
Summaries of articles from special journals in specials fields. 

2. Dictionaries 
b.
Uptodate statistics and data about evevents, progress, and conditions. 

3. Almanacs & Yearbooks 
c.
Summaries of graduate research. 

4. Directories 
d.
Listing of books and libraries where they can be gotten on interlibrary
loan. 

5. Biographical Sources
(Biographical Index) 
e.
Microfilm, microfiche, and microcard listings except theses and dissertations. 

6. Bibliographical Sources
(Education index, Bibliographic Index) 
f.
Aclassification of important newspaper items by subject, personality, and
organization. 

7. Card Catalog 
g.
Subject and author index of general interest articles in more than 30 magazines. 

8. National Union Catalog 
h.
An overview of education research in eleven subdivisions. 

9. Cumulative Book Index 
i.
Specific facts about persons. 

10.
Books in Print 
j.
List of periodials in different libraries. 

11.
Monthly Catalog of Government Publications 
k.
Departmental and subject index to government publications. 

12.
Education Index 
l.
Educational research journals. 

13.
Reader’s Guide 
m.
Listing of articles in most educational journals and many other education
sources. 

14.
Union List of Serials in libraries of US & Canada 
n.
Names and addresses of persons, periodicals, publishers, etc. 

15.
New York Times Index 
o.
Lists of sources on given subjects. 

16.
Guide to Microforms in Print 
p.
Brief overview of a topic. 

17.
Review of Educational Research 
q.
Current index to articles in more than 500 journals of education. 

18.
Psychological Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Education Abstracts 
r.
Complete listing of title, author, and publisher of books in the English
language. 

19.
Journal of Educational
Research, NEA Research
Bulletin, Journal of Experimental Education, Research Quarterly, American
Educational Research Journal 
s.
Spelling, pronunciation, usage, and meaning of words. 

20.
Dissertation Abstracts, Masters Abstracts 
t.
Author, title, and subject listing of books in the library. 

21.
Resources in Education 
u.
Authortitle listing of books currently being printed. 

22.
CIJE 
v.
Indexes and abstrats of documents from all ERIC clearinghouses. 

23.
ERIC 
w.
An educational information retrieval and dissemination system. 
II. Match the five major
steps of the scientific method to the illustration of those steps by inserting
the matching letter.

1. The car will not start. 
a.
Techniques for collecting data are chosen. 

2. The person observes whether
he can hear the starter and the position of the gas gauge. 
b.
Suggested solutions of the problem, hypotheses, are derived. 

3. Based on past experience,
he guesses there might not be enough electricity to (a) turn the starter
or (b) fire the plugs, or (c) it might not be getting gas to the cylinders. 
c.
Assumptions underlying the hypotheses are stated. 

4. (a) If there is not enough
electricity to the starter, it will not turn the engine over. (b) If there
is not electricity to the plugs, the spark will not jump the gap. (c) If
it is not getting gas, there will not be gas in the intake. 
d.
A search of the related literature is done. 

5. He checks (a) if the
starter will turn the engine over.(b) if the spark will jump the gap, or
(c) if there is gas in the intake. 
e.
A felt difficulty is encounter, a problem discovered. 


f.
The hypotheses are tested by action. 


g.
The difficulty or problem is further identified and defined. 


h.
Deductive reasoning is used to think out results of suggested solutions. 


i.
Appropriate statistical methods are chosen for the problem. 


j.
An experiental design is chosen to fit the problem. 


k.
Advice from an authority is sought about the problem. 
III. Circle the following
number of the sources of historical information which are primary and check
those which are secondary.
1. A picture of
an event
2. A tape recording
3.Folk tales
4. Original paintings
5. Deeds
6. A diary
7. The original draft of
a speech
8. An artifact
9. An article describing
a document
10. A textbook describing
an event
IV. Match the correct definition
or description with each item.

1. Representative
sample

a.
The observed conditions represents a significant departure from what might
be expeted by chance alone. 

2. Adequate sample

b.
A measure based on a sample. 

3. Random sampling

c.
Represent how individuals differ in kind or sort. 

4. Stratified random
sampling

d.
A statement that there is no relationship or differene between the variable
under analysis. 

5. Proportional
random sampling

e.
A predetermined number of units is drawn from smaller homogeneous units
determined by some characteristic. 

6. Double sampling

f.
Is determined by the nature of the population, type of sampling design,
and degree of precision required. 

7. Systematic sampling

g.
Selecting randomized intact units such as schools or classes rather than
individuals within them. 

8. Cluster sampling

h.
The probability of the events occurrence by chance chosen as a perentage. 

9. Descriptive
statistics

i.
A large group containing all units of a defined category. 

10. Inferential
statistics

j.
Drawing a number of units from the nonrespondents to see if they are different
from the respondents. 

11. Quantitative
variable

k.
A small group o fcarefully selected units from the defined category. 

12. Qualitative
variable

l.
Measures of characteristics of the small group (sample) are generalized
to represent the characteristics of the large group (population). 

13. Population

m.
Represents how individuals differ in amount, degree, or frequency. 

14. Sample

n.
Statement which indicates the direction of expeted relationship or differene
between variables under analysis. 

15. Statistic

o.
Each unit in the population has an equal or known chance of being chosen. 

16. Parameter

p.
Numbers which in effect give a "word picture" of the information they represent. 

17. Statistically
significant

q.
A small group (sample) out of a large group (population) which is so typical
of the large group that it contains most of the characteristics of the
large group and is unbiased. 

18. Level of significance

r.
A measure based on a population. 

19. Null hypothesis

s.
A predetermined number of units is drawn from smaller homogeneous units
determined by some characteristic based on the size of those units. 

20. Research hypothesis

t.Units
are drawn at fixed intervals from a list, preferably randomized. 

21. Dependent variable

u.
Change caused by experimental treatment. 

22. Independent
variable

v.
Factor manipulated under observation to determined its relationship to
the dependent variable. 

23. Internal validity

w.
Determines if the independent variable really produced the change. 

24. External validity

x.
An instrument measures what it says it will measure. 

25. Reliability

y.
How consistently an instrument yields the same results on repeated measurements. 

26. Validity

z.
Determines the generalizability or representativeness of the research findings. 
V. Statistical Problems
(a) 4, 2, 3, 4,
2, 3, 4, 5, 3, 1, 2, 3
Using the above set of numbers,
construct a histogram.
Using the above
set of numbers, calculated these measures of central tendency  mean, median,
and mode.
Using the above set of numbers,
calculated these measures of variation  range, and standard deviation.
(b) Figure the
correlation between these two groups of scores.
Score

Score

Arc Welding

Oxyacetylene Welding

1 
2 
2 
1 
3 
4 
4 
3 
5 
5 
=
df = (Number of pairs 
2) =
r_{.05} =
Ho = Accept or Reject?
(c) Chi Square
 Is there any difference between frequency of grades for boys or girls?

A

B

C

D

Row Subtotal

Boys

80(
) 
60(
) 
40(
) 
20(
) 
200

Girls

20(
) 
100(
) 
60(
) 
20(
) 
200

Column Subtotal

100 
160 
100 
40 
400
Total

X^{2} = fo
= observed frequency
fe = expected frequency
=
X^{2} =
X^{2} =
df = (Row  1) (Columns
 1) =
X^{2}_{.05}
=
Ho = Accept or Reject?
VI. Place the number corresponding
to the one primary use, the letter corresponding to the one best measurement
level, and the number(s) of all assumptions that fit that statistic in
the blanks beside it.
Statistic

Primary Use

Measurement Level Best
Suited

Assumption to be Met

Mean 



Median 



Mode 



Range 



Standard
Deviation 



Correlation 



Regression 



"t"
test 



Separate
variance formula 



Pooled
variance formula 



Correlated
formula 



Analysis
of Variance 



Single
Class 



Multiple
Class 



Analysis of covariance 



Single
Class 



Multiple
Class 



Chi
Square 



Correlation
(Multiple) 



Regression
(Multiple) 



Assumptions
1. Representative sample
(usually random)
2. Normal Population
Distribution
3. Equal Variances
4. Linear Data
5. Independent Observations 
Measurement Level
A. Interval(Equal interval
between measures)
B. Ordinal (Numbers can
be ranked)
C. Nominal (Numbers represent
names) 
Uses
1. Test differences among
means of 2 or more groups controlling for 1 or more variables.
2. Analyze scores on
a large number of variables to determine a few causes of the change.
3. Predict relationship
between 1 dependent and 2 or more independent variables.
4. Test differences among
means of 2 or more groups with 1 dependent and 2 or more independent variables
controlling for 1 or more variables.
5. Measure variation.
6. Test difference among
means of 2 or more groups with 1 dependent & 2 or more independent
variable.
7. Measure relationship
between 2 variables.
8. Test difference between
means of 2 groups.
9. Measure relationship
between 1 dependent and 2 or more independent variables.
10. Test differences
among means of 2 or more groups.
11. Measure central tendency.
12. Compare frequency
of occurrence.
13. Predict relationship
between 1 dependent and 1 independent
variable. 
VII. Match the term with
the definition or description.

1.

Common
Sense 

9.

External
Criticism 

2.

Authority 

10.

Internal
Criticism 

3.

Intuition 

11.

Historical
Research 

4.

Revelation 

12.

Descriptive
Research 

5.

Experience 

13.

Experimental
Research 

6.

Reason 

14.

Physical
Manipulation 

7.

Primary
Source 

15.

Selective
Manipulation 

8.

Secondary
Source 

16.

Statistical
Manipulation 
a. Selecting in
or out variables that cannot be controlled.
b. Source of knowledge based
on rationalization.
c. Questions the authenticity
of the source.
d. Is believed to have originated
from outside of man's experience.
e. Collection of information
on existing phenomena which describes the characteristics of whole population
of people, investigates relationships between variables, or determines
changes over time.
f. An effort to determine
or predict events likely to occur by controlling factors that may affect
the results of an experiment.
g. Ability to learn from
this source of knowledge is generally considered a prime characteristic
of intelligent behavior.
h. Research used to test
the genuineness of the reported events, conditions or observations of others.
i. Source of knowledge that
may not be completely relied upon without proving the results.
j. Questions the accuracy
after checking the authenticity of the source.
k. All subjects are equally
exposed to the independent variable.
l. Information derived from
someone of reputation of an opinion or evidence.
m. Sources of information
based on direct results of events or any registered evidence of events
by eyewitness.
n. Variables not conducive
to physical or selective manipulation may be controlled by this method.
o. Can hinder scientific
investigation when used to justify preconceived ideas.
p. Information collected
from textbooks, newspapers, encyclopedias, etc.
VIII. Match the characteristics,
advantages, and disadvantages with questionnaire or interview.
Q = Questionnaire
I = Interview
1. _____ Reduces
anxiety.
2. _____ Respondents answers
in any way they see fit.
3._____ Allows for the consistent
uniformity of questions.
4. _____ Questions can be
clarified.
5. _____ Considered the
lazy man's method.
6. _____ Yield more comparable
data.
7. _____ Objective type
of questions are asked.
8. _____ Economical.
9. _____ Able to determine
verbal and nonverbal behavior.
10. ____ Easily used with
children and illiterates.
IX. Match the advantages and
disadvantages with structured or unstructured interview.
S = Structured
Interview
U = Unstructured Interview
1. _____ Difficult
to compare data.
2. _____ Use of identical
questions may hinder questioning in depth.
3. _____ Few limitations.
4. _____ Open.
5. _____ Useful in the exploratory
phase of research.
6. _____ Questions can be
shifted to get better responses.
7. _____ Different methods
are used.
8. _____ Flexible.
9. _____ More scientific.
10 ____ Not easy to measure
the gathered data.
X. Match the studies and purposes
or types of study.
A = Survey
B = Interrelationship
C = Developmental
1. _____ Determines
the degree of the relationship between two or more variables.
2. _____ Determines in depth
the present situation and the aim being pursued.
3. _____ A study which refers
to determining changes over time.
4. _____ Present situations
are documented in this type of study.
5. _____ Thorough investigation
of individual situation or personality to examine specific condition and
to suggest improvement where necessary.
6. _____ The study which
investigates the relationship between variables.
7. _____ Describes the characteristics
of the whole population of people or situation.
8. _____ This type of study
facilitates better organization of training programs for specific jobs.
9. _____ The data gathered
deals deals with internal or external characteristics of a community.
10.____ Type of study relevant
to forecasting future situations.
XI. Match definitions, advantages,
and disadvantages with the tool.
A = Inventories
D = Semantic Differential
B = Scale
E = Q Methodology
C = Direct Observation
F = Delphi Technique
1. _____
Unnatural.
2. _____ Has limited
use because of unsatisfactory validity.
3. _____ Uses correlation
between persons and is suitable to small samples.
4. _____ Gathers opinions
to have a basis for appraising, ascertaining, perceiving, and anticipating
situations.
5. _____
This tool uses clusters of adjectives as scales to rate concepts or meanings
of words.
6. _____ Measures
attitudes, values, and interests.
7. _____ Measures traits
by direct observation of behavior.
8. _____ Describes
traits of certain defined groups.
9. _____ Realistic.
10. _____ Prevents personality
biases.
XII. Match the factors and
definitions with types of validity.
I = Internal Validity
E = External Validity
1. _____
History  The events occurring between the first and second measurements
in addition to the experimental variable which might affect the measurement.
2. _____ Measuring Instruments
 Changes in instruments, calibration of instruments, observers, or scores
may cause changes in the measurement.
3. _____ Multiple
Treatment Interference  If the subjects are exposed to more than one treatment,
then the findings could only be generalized to individuals exposed to the
same treatments in the same order of presentation.
4. _____ PreTesting
 The effect created on a second measurement by having a measurement before
the experiment.
5. _____ Differential
Selection  Selection of subjects determines how findings generalized.
Subjects selected from small group or one with particular characteristics
would limit generalizability. Randomly chosen subjects from entire population
could be generalized to entire population.
6. _____ Experimental
Procedures  The experimental procedures and arrangements have a certain
amount of effect on the subjects in the experimental settings. Generalization
to persons not in the experimental setting may be precluded.
7. _____ PreTesting
 Individuals who were pretested might be less or more sensitive to the
experimental variable or might have "learned" from the pretest making
them unrepresentative of the population who had not been pretested.
8. _____ Maturation
 The process of maturing which takes place in the individual during the
duration of the experiment which is not a result of specific events but
of simply growing older, growing more tired, or similar changes.
9. _____ Experimental
Mortality  The loss of subjects from comparison groups could greatly affect
the comparisons because of unique characteristics of those subject. Groups
to be compared need to be the same after as before the experiment.
10. _____ Statistical
Regression  Where groups are chosen because of extreme scores of measurements,
those scores or measurements tend to move toward the mean with repeated
measurements even without an experimental variable.
11. _____ Interaction
of Factors  Combination of factors may interact especially in multiple
group comparisons to produce erroneous measurements.
12. _____ Differential
Selection  Different individuals or groups would have different previous
knowledge or ability which would affect the final measurement if not taken
into account.
XIII. Match the tool with the
factor it helps control.
P = PreTest, PostTest
R = Randomization
C = Control Group
A = Additional Groups
1. _____ Helps reduce
effect of History, Maturation, Instrumentation, and Interaction of Factors.
2. _____ Aids control
for differential selection by determining the presence or knowledge of
experimental variable before experiment begins. Aids control of experimental
mortality.
3. _____ Aids in control
of Statistical Regression, Differential Selection, and Interaction of Factors.
Greatly increases generalizability by helping make groups representative
of populations.
4. _____ Aids in control
of the effects of PreTest and Experimental Procedures. Needs to be used
in conjunction with other pretested groups or other factors jeopardizing
validity would be present.
